Itinerary of the Coronado Expeditions 1527 – 1547

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JUNE 17 Narvaez sails from Spain to explore the mainland north of the Gulf of Mexico.
APRIL 15 Narvaez lands in Florida.
SEPT. 22 The failure of the Narvaez expedition is assured.
Cortes makes a settlement in Lower California.

SEPT. It is rumored that Coronado has been nominated governor of New Galicia.
Pedro de Alvarado returns from Spain to the New World.
MARCH 7 Friar Marcos de Niza, accompanied by the negro Estevan, starts from Culiacan to find the Seven Cities.
APRIL 18 The appointment of Coronado as governor of New Galicia is confirmed.
MAY De Soto sails from Habana.
MAY 9 Friar Marcos enters the wilderness of Arizona.
MAY 21 Friar Marcos learns of the death of Estevan.
MAY 25 De Soto lands on the coast of Florida.
JULY 8 Ulloa sails from Acapulco nearly to the head of the Gulf of California in command of a fleet furnished by Cortes.
AUGUST Friar Marcos returns from the north and
SEPT. 2 certifies to the truth of his report before Mendoza and Coronado.
OCTOBER The news of Niza’s discoveries spreads through New Spain.
NOV. Mendoza begins to prepare for an expedition to conquer the Seven Cities of Cibola.
Melchior Diaz is sent to verify the reports of Friar Marcos.
De Soto finds the remains of the camp of Narvaez at Bahia de los Cavallos.
NOV. 12 Witnesses in Habana describe the effect of the friar’s reports.

JAN. 1 Mendoza celebrates the new year at Pasquaro.
JAN. 9 Coronado at Guadalajara.
FEB. 5 Cortes stops at Habana on his way to Spain.
FEB. The members of the Cibola expedition assemble at Compostela, where the viceroy finds them on his arrival.
FEB. 22. Review of the army on Sunday.
FEB. 23. The army, under the command of Francisco Vazquez Coronado, starts for Cibola (not on February 1).
FEB. 26. Mendoza returns to Compostela, having left the army two days before, and examines witnesses to discover how many citizens of New Spain have accompanied Coronado. He writes a letter to King Charles V, which has been lost.
MARCH The army is delayed by the cattle in crossing the rivers.
The death of the army master, Samaniego, at Chiametla.
Return of Melchior Diaz and Juan de Saldivar from Chichilticalli.
MARCH 3 Beginning of litigation in Spain over the right to explore and conquer the Cibola country.
MARCH 28 Reception to the army at Culiacan, on Easter day.
APRIL The army is entertained by the citizens of Culiacan.
Mendoza receives the report of Melchior Diaz’ exploration, perhaps at Jacona.
Coronado writes to Mendoza, giving an account of what has already happened, and of the arrangements which he has made for the rest of the journey. This letter has been lost.
APRIL 17 Mendoza writes to the Emperor Charles V.
APRIL 22 Coronado departs from Culiacan with about seventy-five horsemen and a few footmen.
APRIL Coronado passes through Petatlan,
MAY Cinaloa, Los Cedros, Yaquemi, and other places mentioned by Jaramillo.
MAY 9 Alarcon sails from Acapulco to coöperate with Coronado. The army starts from Culiacan and marches toward the Corazones or Hearts valley.
MAY 26 Coronado leaves the valley of Corazones.
JUNE He proceeds to Chichilticalli, passing Senora or Sonora and Ispa, and thence crosses the Arizona wilderness, fording many rivers.
The army builds the town of San Hieronimo in Corazones valley.
JULY 7 Coronado reaches Cibola and captures the first city, the pueblo of Hawikuh, which he calls Granada.
JULY 11 The Indians retire to their stronghold on Thunder mountain.
JULY 15 Pedro de Tovar goes to Tusayan or Moki, returning within thirty days.
JULY 19 Coronado goes to Thunder mountain and returns the same day.
AUG. 3 Coronado writes to Mendoza. He sends Juan Gallego to Mexico, and Melchior Diaz to Corazones with orders for the army. Friar Marcos accompanies them.
AUG. 25 (?) Lopez de Cardenas starts to find the canyons of Colorado river, and is gone about eighty days.
AUG. 26 Alarcon enters the mouth of Colorado river.
AUG. 29 Hernando de Alvarado goes eastward to Tiguex, on the Rio Grande, and to the buffalo plains.
Pedro de Alvarado arrives in New Spain.
SEPT. 7 Hernando de Alvarado reaches Tiguex.
Diaz and Gallego reach Corazones about the middle of September, and the army starts for Cibola.
Coronado visits Tutahaco.
SEPT. TO JANUARY The army reaches Cibola, and goes thence to Tiguex for its winter quarters. The natives in the Rio Grande pueblos revolt and are subjugated. The Turk tells the Spaniards about Quivira.
OCTOBER Diaz starts from Corazones before the end of September, with twenty five men, and explores the country along the Gulf of California, going beyond Colorado river.
Diego de Alcaraz is left in command of the town of San Hieronimo.
NOV. 29 Mendoza and Pedro de Alvarado sign an agreement in regard to common exploration and conquests.

JAN. 8 Diaz dies on the return from the mouth of the Colorado, and his companions return to Corazones valley.
MARCH Alcaraz, during the spring, moves the village of San Hieronimo from Corazones valley to the valley of Suya river.
APRIL 20 Beginning of the Mixton war in New Galicia.
Coronado writes a letter to the King from Tiguex, which has been lost.
Tovar and perhaps Gallego return to Mexico.
APRIL 23 Coronado starts with all his force from Tiguex to cross the buffalo plains to Quivira.
MAY The army is divided somewhere on the great plains, perhaps on Canadian river. The main body returns to Tiguex, arriving there by the middle or last of June.
De Soto crosses the Mississippi.
JUNE Coronado, with thirty horsemen, rides north to Quivira, where he arrives forty-two (?) days later.
JUNE 24 Pedro de Alvarado is killed at Nochistlan, in New Galicia.
AUGUST Coronado spends about twenty-five days in the country of Quivira, leaving ‘‘“the middle or last of August.”’’
SEPT 28 The Indians in New Galicia attack the town of Guadalajara, but are repulsed.
OCT. 2 Coronado returns from Quivira to Tiguex and writes a letter to the King.
NOV. Cardenas starts to return to Mexico with some other invalids from the army. He finds the village of Suya in ruins and hastily returns to Tiguex.
DECEMBER Coronado falls from his horse and is seriously injured.
The Mixton peñol is surrendered by the revolted Indians during holiday week.

Coronado and his soldiers determine to return to New Spain. They start in the spring, and reach Mexico probably late in the autumn. The general makes his report to the viceroy, who receives him coldly. Coronado not long after resigns his position as governor of New Galicia and retires to his estates.
APRIL 17 De Soto reaches the mouth of Red river, where he dies, May 21.
JUNE 27 Cabrillo starts on his voyage up the California coast. He dies in January, 1543, and the vessels return to New Spain by April, 1544.
NOV. 1 Villalobos starts across the Pacific. His fleet meets with many misfortunes and losses. The survivors, five years or more later, return to Spain.
NOV. 25 Friar Juan de la Cruz is killed at Tiguex, where he remained when the army departed for New Spain. Friar Luis also remained in the new country, at Cicuye, and Friar Juan de Padilla, at Quivira, where he is killed.
The companions of Friar Juan de Padilla make their way back to Mexico, arriving before 1552.
NOV. 30 Promulgation of the New Laws for the Indies.
Sebastian Cabot publishes his map of the New World.
Mendoza, before he leaves New Spain to become viceroy of Peru, answers the charges preferred against him by the officials appointed to investigate his administration.